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  • 28 Nov 2021 3:45 AM | Soule (Administrator)

    Fortune Passengers from Leiden: Delano, Bumpas, Morton, Simonson

    The Mayflower arrived back in England on 6 May 1621 (o.s.), and Thomas Weston wrote his scolding letter to the (now deceased) John Carver on 6 July 1621 (o.s.), and, presumably, put the letter on the boat and immediately sent it down the Thames.  That gave Weston less than 90 days to assemble as many people as he could to undertake a dangerous voyage across the Atlantic -- a voyage that lasted four months, with the first month having the Fortune stuck in the English Channel because of contrary winds.

    An obvious source of passengers would be those who had come from Leiden on the Speedwell, but were unable to continue the journey when the Speedwell was abandoned, since there was not enough room on the horribly overcrowded Mayflower.  A number of unmarried young men did go on the Mayflower, but these sailed for reasons such as family relationships with the other passengers, being hired because they had skills necessary to the new community, or being indentured to a passenger.  We know that 20 people disembarked at Plymouth (England), and did not get back on the Mayflower.  Six of these were Richard Warren’s wife and five daughters: they were on the ill-fated Paragon and then on the Anne.  Robert (and probably Thomas) Cushman were also in the group that stayed, and the Cushmans arrived a year later on the Fortune.  A very, very obscure passage in a 1625 letter from Thomas Blossom to William Bradford might mean that Thomas Blossom and his (unnamed) son were on the Speedwell, but did not continue the journey [as an aside, Thomas Blossom is an ancestor of Barak Obama, both President Bushes, and Mr. Rogers].  That leaves ten Speedwell-but-not-Mayflower passengers to be accounted for.

    We know of several members of the Leiden congregation who were on the Fortune: these were all unmarried young men, in their late teens or early twenties.  If they had originally been on the Speedwell, and had remained in England because they could easily get work there and could take the next boat to America (whenever that would sail), it is reasonable to think that they would have stayed in touch with Thomas Weston and would have been able to leave at a moment’s notice.   Four of these are as follows:

    1. Philip Delano (the anglicised form of Philippe de la Noye), whom Bradford notes as having French parents and who asked, on his own, to join the Leiden congregation.  Philip’s aunt was Hester (Mahieu) Cooke, wife of Mayflower passenger Francis Cooke (“the wife of Francis Cooke,” Edward Winslow wrote, “being a Walloon, [who] holds communion with the Church at Plymouth, as she came from the French, by virtue of communion of churches”).  Philip had been baptised in the Walloon Church in Leiden in December 1603, and so must have been about 18 when he boarded the Fortune.  He would have been about the same age as his cousin John Cooke, who had accompanied his father Francis on the Mayflower.

    2. In the land division of 1623, Moses Simonson was joined with Philip Delano in a grant of land, suggesting that they may both have come together from Leiden.  It is assumed that he was about Philip’s age (and several sources guess that he was born at about 1605).  In the 1623 Plymouth land division "Moyses Simonson & Philipe de la Noye" jointly received two acres [PCR 12:5]; in the 1627 Plymouth cattle division Moses Simonson was the eighth person in the first company (headed by Francis Cooke) [PCR 12:9].  In 2004 Jeremy Bangs published a number of intriguing records for the family of Simon Moseszon of Leiden and explored the possibility that he might be father of Moses Simonson. Although such a connection is possible, it is far from proven [New England Ancestors 5 n. 3:54-55].

    3. Also in the land division of 1623, and in the tax lists of 1633 and 1634, Edward Bumpas was adjacent to Philip Delano. The two men at a later date held adjacent land [PCR 1:59, 66, 67]. The last three sons of Bumpas were Philip, Thomas and Samuel, names also used by Delano. These items suggest that Eduard Bompasse (anglicised as Edward Bumpas) came from Leiden with Delano in 1620 or 1621, that the two may have had some association there before that date, and that Bumpas was also a member of the Walloon community there.  He was about the same age as Moses Simonson (based on his age at marriage).

    4. Thomas Morton was quite possibly the witness to the marriage of George Morton and Juliana Carpenter in Leiden on 6 July 1612 [n.s.] [MD 11:193].  Juliana Carpenter’s sister Alice was William Bradford’s second wife.  This identification, if true, shows another member of the Leiden congregation.  His age at first marriage would suggest that he was in his late twenties when he was a passenger on the Fortune.  There is a possibility that he was married, perhaps around 1617, but his wife’s name is unknown, and she appears in no New England record.  The (younger) Thomas Morton who came on the Anne might be this Thomas’ son, but it is just as possible that he was his nephew.

    If we add those related to Mayflower passengers (Jonathan Brewster, eldest son of William Brewster; John Winslow, younger brother of Edward Winslow), that leaves only four passengers of the Speedwell unaccounted for.  This is a long way from George Willison (and many commentators who follow him) in Saints and Strangers, who theorises that there was a veritable riot when large numbers of people demanded to be let off the Mayflower and Speedwell, abandoning the trip when the ships put in to Plymouth.  From what it appears, most of those that stayed in England because there was no room for them on the Mayflower were those most able to support themselves individually; they stayed in close touch with the Merchant Adventurers for news of the new colony, and they got on the first ship they could that would take them to New England.

  • 27 Nov 2021 3:28 AM | Soule (Administrator)

    The Adams Family [sorry, I couldn’t resist]

    John Adams’ English origins are unknown.  In the 1623 Plymouth land division John Adams was granted one acre, as a passenger on the Fortune [PCR 12:5]. Member of the 1626 Purchaser group [PCR 2:177], in the 1627 Plymouth cattle division John Adams, "Eliner Adams," and James Adams were the second, third and fourth persons in the sixth company [PCR 12:11].  Based on his estimated date of marriage, John was probably born around 1600.  About 1625, John Adams married Ellen Newton, a passenger on the Anne [Pilgrim Migration 344]: this identification, long in print, is based on the fact that she is the only Ellen in the 1623 land division, and there was no other known addition to the Plymouth population in the next few years.  This makes her one of several unattached females who came over on the Anne and the Little James, without any obvious connection to any other passenger.  Her English origins are unknown, although it is not impossible that John and Eleanor knew each other before coming to New England.  This is similar to the identification of Mary Becket: this Mary, who came on the Anne and was not obviously part of any other group, is identified as George Soule’s wife because there were only two Marys in Plymouth in 1623 (the other being Mary Chilton, and she is otherwise spoken for), so by pure process of elimination, she must be the “Mary Soule” who was George’s wife.   

    John and Eleanor Adams had three children: James Adams was born before 1627 (since he is included in the division of cattle); John Adams (who married Jane James in Marshfield in 1654) and Susan Adams (no further record), both of whom must have been born after the division of cattle, in which they are not mentioned.  The widow Ellen Adams was named adminstratrix of John Adams’ estate on 11 November 1633, the deceased having left no will; she was bound in the sum of £140, John Barnes surety, to provide £5 apiece to her three children by John Adams - James, John and Susan - when they came of age, if she should choose to remarry [PCR 1:19]. The payment to son James, made by Kenelm Winslow, was recorded on 26 December 1651 [PCR 2:176], when James was at least 25.

    John Adams died between July and October 1633: he is assigned ground to be mowed in the earlier date [PCR 1:14], and his estate is inventoried at the latter date [MD 1:157-58, citing PCPR 1:14].  “The widow Ellen Adams” married (2) Kenelm Winslow, brother of Mayflower passenger Edward Winslow, in June 1634 [PCR 1:30, Pilgrim Migration 518], and was buried at Marshfield 5 December 1681 "being 83 years old" (probably an inflated age) [Marshfield VR 13].

    The best treatment in print of John Adams and his two sons is Robert S. Wakefield, "Men of the Fortune: John Adams," TAG 55 (1979):212-14. (An earlier account is in NEHGR 33 [1879]:410-13.)

  • 26 Nov 2021 3:00 AM | Soule (Administrator)

    Fortune Passengers: Cushmans

    One of the leading passengers on board the Fortune was Robert Cushman, accompanied by his son Thomas. Robert Cushman was baptized in Rolveden, Kent, 9 February 1577/8, son of Thomas and Elinor (Hubbard) Couchman [NEHGR 68:181]; he had been the London agent for the Leiden congregation and was involved in the Mayflower and Speedwell voyage preparations; by occupation he was a grocer in Canterbury and a woolcomber in Leiden. Cushman had planned to make the voyage across the Atlantic, but when the Speedwell had to be abandoned he was one of those who remained behind.  This original intention of Cushman's and his many other services on behalf of the Pilgrims are undoubtedly the justification for the assignment to Cushman in 1623 of land in Plymouth as if he had been a passenger on the Mayflower (even though he wasn’t).  In 1620 Cushman had negotiated a financial support contract with the Merchant Adventurers; Bradford and others of the Leiden contingent refused to approve this contract at Southampton, with the Leideners saying the contract was all in the Adventurers’ favour and to the settlers’ detriment.  One of Cushman's reasons for coming to Plymouth now, a year later, was to convince the Plymouth settlers finally to approve this agreement, which had been unsigned for over a year.  Bradford realised that, so far, the Adventurers had nothing to show for their investment, and after assurances from Cushman that Weston could be counted on, Bradford and the others signed the agreement that Cushman had brought from the Merchant Adventurers.  Lora Underhill has gathered together every record known to her of the life of Robert Cushman, and in the process has compiled the best biography available of the man. Her treatment also goes into great detail on the career of his son Thomas. Elizabeth French in 1914 published her research into the ancestry of Robert Cushman, including extensive transcripts of records of the family in Kent [NEHGR 68:181- 85].  Robert E. Cushman and Franklin P. Cole published Robert Cushman of Kent (1577-1625) Chief Agent of the Plymouth Pilgrims (1617-1625) (Plymouth: GSMD, 1995; reviewed in MD 45:173).  Robert Cushman died in 1625: Bradford wrote that Myles Standish, on his return from England early in 1626, "brought them notice of the death of their ancient friend Mr Cushman, whom the Lord took away also this year." His voyage on the Fortune was his only visit to Plymouth.

    Robert married Sarah Reder at St Alphege in Canterbury on 31 July 1606, and had three children with her, two of whom died young and are buried at the Pieterskerk in Leiden along with Sarah (who died in October 1616, probably in childbirth: Dexter, The England and Holland of the Pilgrims, 611; Bangs, Strangers and Pilgrims, 705).  In June 1617, Robert remarried “Mary Shingleton from Sandwich in England, widow of Thomas Shingleton” [MD 10:193; NEHGR 68:183].  She apparently died before 1621, as there is no evidence she came to Plymouth with her husband and stepson.  Thomas Cushman was on the Fortune with his father; he is the only surviving child of Thomas’ first marriage and the only child known to have come to America and thus the ancestor of all of Robert Cushman’s descendants in America.  He had been baptised at St. Andrew, Canterbury, Kent, 8 February 1607/8 [NEHGR 68:183]; "William Beale & Thomas Cushman" received two acres in partnership in the 1623 Plymouth land division, as passengers on the Fortune -- Thomas would have been about fifteen years old at the time, which may explain the partnership [PCR 12:5]; in the 1627 Plymouth division of cattle, he was the sixth person in the eleventh company [PCR 12:12]; admitted freeman 1 January 1633/4 [PCR 1:4, 21], he married by about 1636 Mary Allerton, daughter of Isaac Allerton, and herself a Mayflower passenger.  Thomas in later life would become the church Elder for the Colony.

  • 25 Nov 2021 2:47 AM | Soule (Administrator)

    The list

    The Fortune (1621):

    1.                  John Adams

    2.                  William Bassett

    3.                  Elizabeth Bassett

    4.                  William Beale*

    5.                  Edward Bompasse (Bumpas)

    6.                  Jonathan Brewster

    7.                  Clement Briggs

    8.                  John Cannon*

    9.                  William Conner (Coner)*

    10.              Robert Cushman

    11.              Thomas Cushman

    12.              Stephen Deane

    13.              Philip Delano

    14.              Thomas Flavel

    15.              (son) Flavel

    16.              _____ Ford

    17.              Mrs. Martha Ford

    18.              John Ford

    19.              Martha Ford

    20.              (son) Ford

    21.              Robert Hicks (Hix)

    22.              William Hilton

    23.              Benedict Morgan

    24.              Thomas Morton

    25.              Augustine (Austen) Nicolas*

    26.              William Palmer

    27.              William Palmer (son)

    28.              William Pitt*

    29.              Thomas Prence

    30.              Moses Simonson

    31.              Hugh Stacy*    

    32.              James Steward*

    33.              William Tench*

    34.              John Winslow

    35.              William Wright

    This is the only way I can get the records to yield 35 names, and I believe that this accounts for everyone.  With the exception of the eight men who are not mentioned other than in the 1623 land division (each given an asterisk in this list), all of the other passengers will be introduced in at least a summary fashion over the next few days.  As I said yesterday, these eight each received a single acre in the land division, and were thus probably unmarried at the time, and are not recorded anywhere else in either New England or England; it is reasonable to assume that they either died after 1623 or returned to England.

  • 24 Nov 2021 3:38 AM | Soule (Administrator)

    The Thirty Five Passengers

    Both Bradford in his journal and Edward Winslow in Mourt’s Relation state that there were thirty-five passengers on the Fortune when it landed in November 1621.  As stated numerous times, there was no passenger list or manifest for this ship, or for any other ship that landed in Plymouth in the 1620s.  Attempts to list the passengers of the Fortune and come up with thirty-five have thus far been singularly unsuccessful.  Some commentators state that the number thirty-five does not include women or children, or is just an estimate, or was not remembered correctly; Stratton lists Edward Bumpas twice (with two different spellings), and still only comes up with 34.  Winslow wrote his recollection a matter of days after they arrived, and while Bradford may have copied Winslow’s number when writing his Of Plimmoth Plantation twenty years later, he was certainly there when the passengers landed and must have had a first-hand personal recollection with which to compare Winslow’s number.  Although Banks records that there was only one woman on the ship (Martha Ford), he notes that several of the passengers were married by 1623, although where they would have found brides is unknown -- all of the unmarried women in Plymouth are otherwise accounted for.

    Tomorrow I will put together the list of thirty five, and this is the only way I can see that the records and the recollection of Winslow and Bradford can match.  For the next few days I will go through those passengers about which we know anything: I have written genealogical sketches of all of the passengers in The Passengers of the Fortune (1621), which I prepared for the Delano Kindred reunion last September.

    There appear to be several families, or parts of families, which I list here to help expand the number:

    (2) William Bassett and his wife Elizabeth Bassett

    (1) Jonathan Brewster, eldest son of William Brewster (who was already in Plymouth)

    (2) Robert Cushman and his son Thomas Cushman (more about them on Friday)

    (2) Thomas Flavell and his son (name unknown).  His wife arrived on the Anne, but they are not in the 1627 cattle division, and so they may have died or, more likely, returned to England.

    (5) Mrs. Martha Ford (maiden name unknown), her husband (name unknown), John Ford (b. 1617), Martha Ford (b. 1619), son born when the Fortune arrived in Cape Cod (died soon afterward).

    (2) William Palmer and his son William Palmer

    (1) John Winslow, brother of Edward Winslow (who was already in Plymouth).

    This accounts for fifteen persons (and three women), or 43% of the passengers.  The following passengers appear in the 1623 Plymouth land division, but not in the 1627 cattle division or any other record, and thus they must have died or returned to England in the meantime: (8) William Beale, John Cannon, William Conner, Augustin Nicolas, William Pitt, Hugh Stacy, James Steward, William Tench, Each received a single acre in the 1623 land division, which would suggest that they were all unmarried men; some might have been servants for other investors who had not yet come to New England.  That brings the total to 23 (66% of the total number of passengers).

  • 23 Nov 2021 3:27 AM | Soule (Administrator)

    Origin of the Fortune Passengers

    It is believed that the majority of the passengers of the Fortune were gathered together in London by Thomas Weston and his partner.  According to author Charles Banks, individual records show that sixteen of the passengers can definitely be assigned to London or districts of the city such as Stepney and Southwark.  Ten more passengers, whose origins cannot be determined, either died early or left the colony as determined by who was listed in the 1627 Division of Cattle, which also doubled as a type of census.

  • 22 Nov 2021 2:36 AM | Soule (Administrator)

    Condition of the Fortune Passengers

    Contrary to conditions on the Mayflower one year earlier, everyone on the Fortune seemed to be in good health upon arrival, despite having been on board for four months. One birth was recorded soon after arrival – Martha Ford gave birth to a son, although her husband William Ford may have died about that time.  When the son died is unknown.

  • 21 Nov 2021 3:15 AM | Soule (Administrator)

    Hugging the Coast

    The Fortune, after staying a couple of days near Provincetown and not sure where to go or what to do, starts to move slowly along the inner shore of Cape Cod, looking for signs of the Mayflower passengers.  During the transit from Cape Cod to Plymouth the Fortune passengers were shocked by the barren and bleak shoreline, much as the Mayflower passengers had been. The Fortune passengers found it hard to believe that anything could exist in such a forbidding land.  Bradford wrote that they "ther saw nothing but a naked and barren place."

  • 20 Nov 2021 3:22 AM | Soule (Administrator)

    News of a ship brought to Plymouth

    On Saturday, “the Indians bring us Word of [the Fortune] being near, but think her a Frenchman: upon making for our Bay, the Governor orders a Piece to be fired to call Home such as are abroad at Work & we get ready for Defence.”  Not only did the Fortune not know where the Plymouth colony had set up, the Plymouth Colony had not known that Weston was sending another ship with further settlers.

  • 19 Nov 2021 3:46 AM | Soule (Administrator)

    Arrives a Ship at Cape Cod

    A ship appeared at the tip of Cape Cod this afternoon -- the first in a year.

    It was the Fortune, at the end of a four month journey.  To summarise: the Mayflower had arrived back in England in May, virtually empty, with stories of a disastrous winter.  Thomas Weston had scrambled to put together a group of additional settlers -- some had been passengers on the Speedwell, but had stayed in England because there was not enough room on the overcrowded Mayflower for them to make their intended journey last year.  Others were those Weston could gather quickly from London.  Since the Adventurers had learned that the colony was outside of their grant of land, a new patent was quickly obtained.  Weston wrote a letter to the new colony, chastising them for their falling so far short of their agreement, addressed it to the man whom he thought was the leader (John Carver, who had died eight months ago), and bundled this all on a small ship and sent it to -- without supplies -- to -- he did not know where.  When the Fortune arrived today at (what is now) Provincetown, they had only the vaguest ideas of where the Pilgrims were.  No one on the ship had been to New England, much less Plymouth, before.

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